A watershed is defined as an area of land that separates waters flowing to different rivers, basins, or seas. However, an easier way to think of a watershed is by picturing it as all the land where rainfall that lands drains off of and into other streams of waters. According to the USGS Water Science School, “You’re standing, and everyone is standing, in a watershed. Watersheds can be as small as a footprint or large enough to encompass all the land that drains water into rivers that drain into Chesapeake Bay, where it enters the Atlantic Ocean.”

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Watersheds may vary in size and location, but a variable that doesn’t change between one to the next is the necessity to keep them healthy. The natural water cycle depends on a viable environment to sustain the watersheds. Sadly, many watersheds are already polluted or at the risk of becoming polluted due to contaminants. The United States Environmental Protection Agency, commonly regarded as EPA, states that some of the pollution in watersheds is caused by ‘nonpoint source (NPS) pollution’ and NPS is caused when rainfall or snowmelt, moving over and through the ground, picks up and carries natural and human-made pollutants, depositing them into lakes, rivers, wetlands, coastal waters and ground waters. Essentially, rainfall lands in contaminated watersheds, or land that drains into an outlet, and carries pollutants into water sources that make up our natural water cycle.

The EPA goes on to define a healthy watershed as providing “nutrient cycling, carbon storage, erosion/sedimentation control, increased biodiversity, soil formation, wildlife movement corridors, water storage, water filtration, flood control, food, timber and recreation, as well as reduced vulnerability to invasive species, the effects of climate change and other natural disasters.” We want to strive for healthy and unpolluted watersheds because the benefits that are derived from them are diverse and range from quality of life improvements, economic benefits, and beyond. The EPA notes a range of benefits including:

  • Improved water quality
  • Carbon storage opportunities
  • Increased resilience in the face of climate change threats
  • Reduced risk for invasive species colonization
  • Protecting healthy watersheds can reduce capital costs for water treatment plants and reduce damages to property and infrastructure due to flooding, thereby avoiding future costs
  • Reduced drinking water treatment and infrastructure costs
  • Reduced flood mitigation costs
  • Increased revenues and job opportunities
  • Increased property values

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These positive outcomes from healthy watersheds play a large role in our life. They allow us to participate in recreational outdoor activities, decrease treatment costs, increase the value of the land, all meanwhile keeping our watersheds free of pollutants. Protecting our watershed and maintaining healthy water supplies is important to the vitality of our communities and homes. There are many ways you can participate in keeping our watersheds clean! The Nature Conservancy shares some steps that individuals can take to participate in the effort of keeping watersheds pollutant free. These include:

  • Don’t pour toxic household chemicals down the drain; take them to a hazardous waste center.
  • Use hardy plants that require little or no watering, fertilizers or pesticides in your yard.
  • Do not over apply fertilizers. Consider using organic or slow release fertilizers instead.
  • Recycle yard waste in a compost pile & use a mulching mower.
  • Use surfaces like wood, brick or gravel for decks & walkways; it allows rain to soak in & not run off.
  • Never pour used oil or antifreeze into the storm drain or the street.
  • Pick up after your dog and dispose of the waste in the toilet or the trash.
  • Drive less—walk or bike; many pollutants in our waters come from car exhaust and car leaks.

Healthy watersheds are connected to various aspects of our life and by following the tips to maintain a clean watershed, YOU can make a direct impact in your community!

The scarcity of available drinking (potable) water has forced water agencies to look for innovated ways of finding new sources of drinking water for its customers. Because new water can’t be created, the concept of using recycled water is quickly becoming more common place. The California Agricultural Water Stewardship Initiative notes that recycled water projects have more than doubled since 1987 and continues to follow an upward trend. Identified and delivered by purple pipes, recycled water is often labeled with warnings of, “Do Not Drink” and “Non-Potable Water.” But if recycled water isn’t supposed to be for drinking, then how can recycled water be a source of clean drinking water?

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Let’s start with the question of, “What exactly is recycled water and what purpose does it serve?” The answer comes from years of innovative thinking in hopes to find solutions for water-stressed regions. The California Association of Sanitation Agencies (CASA) defines recycled water as “municipal wastewater which, as a result of specified treatment, is suitable for a beneficial use.” Essentially, wastewater enters a treatment process that allows for it to be used again without going through the natural water cycle. Therefore, the volume of the treated wastewater is more predictable and available during a more immediate timeframe. According to CASA recycled water is, “One of the only reliable, sustainable and drought-proof sources of new water to meet California’s needs.” Recycled water essentially creates a new source of water. Can this water be used for drinking?

Implementing recycled water systems in service areas has had many challenges, including the public perceptions of its uses in relation to drinking water. One negative perception includes the idea that customers would be drinking recycled wastewater from their faucets. Although recycled water is used to benefit the population for outdoor irrigation uses, regulations in California do not permit  direct consumption for potable use This means we can’t drink recycled water  right after it leaves the treatment plant. More simply put, it cannot be used to for drinking, cooking, or showering purposes. Instead, it is currently approved for ‘non-potable’ uses, non-drinking/ human uses. But even for these uses, a high degree of treatment is conducted by local wastewater treatment agencies that must meet accepted state and federal water quality standards before delivery and use of recycled water.

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The difference between potable and non-potable water is potable water has been designated for safe direct consumption by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, among other agencies and requirements. However, the specifications do not exclude non-potable water (not intended for drinking) from serving water districts and its consumers in a positive manner. Instead, recycled water not intended for direct consumption can be used for “irrigation, such as turf and landscaping, agricultural uses, dust control and industrial cooling.” Crops using recycled water provide the much needed water resources to help harvests grow. Many of those crops are then used at some point for either animal or human consumptions, which are a  byproduct of recycled waters use.

Another use of recycled water is to recharge groundwater aquifers and to prevent seawater intrusion into underground drinking supplies. Treatment levels of the recycled water vary from primary, secondary, and tertiary treatment methods. Recycled water that is used to supplement or recharge groundwater aquifers must employ greater levels of treatment to ensure its quality and safety. The indirect potable reuse of wastewater isn’t directly consumed by people. Instead, it is pumped to groundwater basins for recharge where it passes through yet another natural filtering process of treatment. That water will eventually make it’s way to wells used to deliver water  for consumption. According to the California State Water Board, “regulations specify the percentage of recycled water that can be added, how long it must reside in a basin and the distance from adjoining potable well supplies before it can be merged with other natural groundwater sources used for  drinking water.” Due to the nature of the process, this type of use of recycled water is considered indirect water consumption.

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A large focus of many Southern California water agencies is to increase local water supply and to decrease its reliance on imported sources. Pursing these projects helps alleviate some of the challenges that California has experienced over the last years, The California Agricultural Water Stewardship Initiative outlines the benefits as:

  1. Reducing water pollutions
  2. Augmenting water supply
  3. Supporting healthy ecosystems; and
  4. Reducing water energy requirements and costs

Innovative solutions, such as using recycled water for indirect consumption, will continue to strengthen California’s water districts ability to deliver consistent, reliable, and safe water for its consumers.

Most people in California turn their faucet on and use water for drinking, washing, cooking, and other activities with confidence that the water they are using is safe. The institutions that provide the ever-needed resource at any time of the day are water agencies, and they serve the public daily through a wide variety of important roles. One of the primary roles of a water agency is to deliver high quality water with reliable service 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Agencies employ water quality technicians and scientists that do the work to deliver dependable water on a consistent basis. Careers in water treatment and operations include inspecting water samples, analyzing findings, helping set standards for water integrity, as well as reliable delivery of water to their customers. Individuals who work at a water treatment plant operate and manage the distribution of water to homes and businesses. Operations staff also work in the field collecting water quality samples and working with labs to test for water quality. Both play a direct role in maintaining the vitality of their communities and environments by providing services that benefit public health.

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Careers in water treatment and operations don’t just happen over night. Ernie Montelongo, Chief Plant Operator for West Valley Water District, has served in the water industry for over 34 years. He started his career as an entry-level water meter reader and worked his way up to play an integral role in water quality. Ernie is a knowledgeable and well-rounded individual, having worked in various roles from a maintenance employee to pump operator and now water treatment. He takes his job with serious regard and shares, “We are the first line of defense to protecting the people we serve.” Regarding water treatment as a first line of defense for the community is no exaggeration; after all, water can only sustain its surroundings if its useable.

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Ernie has been a long-time mentor and leader in water quality for the Inland Empire. He encourages others to follow in his footsteps to pursue fulfilling careers in water treatment and operations. As the supervisor / chief operator for West Valley Water District’s water treatment facility, he oversees water quality testing on a daily basis among other operations. He and his team personally test for constituents (contaminants) in drinking water; these tests are called “grab samples.” Grab samples include testing for maximum contaminant levels, pH and total dissolved solids. At the end of every week, additional samples are sent to a nearby lab for testing. “Combined we conduct over 200 water quality tests on a weekly basis,” continues Ernie. “Every water quality test result is sent to the California Department of Drinking Water for reporting purposes.” This process gives the public an added assurance that the District takes accountability, and pride, in the water it serves.

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Next time you turn your water faucet on, remember that there is a team of individuals working diligently around the clock to ensure that you and your family can drink, cook, and use the resource with a peace of mind.

Water quality and distribution  are essential elements of the water industry that will continue to require dedicated professionals.  For individuals considering technical and operational careers in water, the California State Water Resources Control Board provides information on certification programs to become a water treatment and distribution system operator.

 

The tap water at most California’s schools is considered safe while officials are working to ensure that older water systems are thoroughly tested.

A grueling game of tether ball. A competitive kickball session. Or maybe just one of those typical hot California fall days. Whether they’re filling their reusable bottles or slurping it straight from the fountain, water is a necessity for the school day. And with kids just heading back to the classroom, the last thing parents want to worry about is the safety of school water.

Mom and Dad might sleep a little easier now knowing that any public K-12 school built before 2010 will be required to test lead levels in all school drinking water sources by July 2019. But what about newer schools? Should we be concerned with  those too? The mandate doesn’t include any site built after the 2010 cutoff, but a new state directive gives those officials the option to request testing.

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Water: California style

Few people think of tap water without remembering the Flint, Michigan lead poisoning crisis of 2014. The contamination occurred when the city, looking to save money on utilities, began sourcing water from the Flint River instead of Lake Huron and the Detroit River. The water was not properly treated and lead from old pipes leached into the supply, poisoning the tap for more than 100,000 residents.

Thankfully, the Golden State’s water supply rarely contains lead. Yet there are some older buildings, homes and schools with pipes, fixtures, solder or other infrastructure that  still contain lead. And even if the water is all derived from the same source, the plumbing fixtures that it runs through could contain lead and possibly cause contamination.

In response to this potential health hazard, the State’s Division of Drinking Water (DDW) and the California Department of Education have joined forces to begin testing public school’s water supply.

In 2017, the DDW amended the permits of at least 1,200 community water systems to enable school districts to receive assistance from their public water utility. The local water system must sample the school’s supply within 90 days of the request and will collect and analyze up to five water samples. If a high lead level is discovered, the school will receive support to deal with the issue and set up an action plan. Legislators went a step further with the passage of Assembly Bill 746, the bill requiring older schools to test lead levels by July 2019.

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Schools are already sampling

Since California’s infrastructure tends to sit on the newer side, most of the state’s water supply is safe, yet there have been some incidents. In 2017, high levels of lead, copper and bacteria were discovered at two elementary schools and one middle school in the San Diego County-based San Ysidro School District. The issue was unearthed when discolored water began flowing from faucets during a routine pressure check. The schools immediately shut off all water and had the supply analyzed. Students were instructed to only drink bottled water supplied by the district and continued to do so until the end of the year.

Testing revealed that the water source wasn’t the issue, but instead old faucets were leaking lead into the tap water. The same issue occurred up in Sacramento in 2015 when Folsom Cordova Unified School District found elevated levels of lead in one of its schools that serves preschoolers and special needs students. Some of the District’s schools were built in the 1960s and have old piping. The District began testing all its facilities and is continuing to do so.

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The serious health consequences of lead poisoning

Even at what is considered low levels, lead can cause a range of health issues including: learning disabilities, developmental delays, weight loss, abdominal pain and behavioral issues. The chemical can build up for months or years and is particularly dangerous in children younger than 6 since they are still developing. Although the requirement is only for schools eight years or older, many institutions that don’t fall under that umbrella are already testing. And the DDW encourages all public schools to take advantage of the program to ensure that their drinking water is safe.

If the lead in the tap water exceeds 15 parts per billion, then the school must conduct further testing to ensure that it’s safe for students to drink.  Of the state’s nearly 13,000 public and private schools, a total of 3,444 public and 220 private institutions have tested the lead levels in their drinking water. A total of 16,781 sites reported lead levels of less than 15 parts per billion, 683 were in the middle range with levels between 5 parts per billion and 15 parts per billion, while 186 sites reported levels exceeding the regulatory cut-off.

Water agencies work diligently to ensure that tap water is safe for the public to consume anywhere, including schools. Regular tap water testing and monitoring is required to meet and exceed State and Federal water quality standards. The State Water Resources Control Board has created an interactive map for residents to check on the lead levels or current status of local schools. If you have concerns about the tap water at your child’s school, contact your district to find out more.

 

Recent reports of Trichloroethylene in public water systems have been surfacing and gaining media attention. The Environmental Working Group, (EWG) a research non-profit agency, released an analysis of tests from public utilities nationwide. The analysis stated that approximately 14 million people are impacted by the carcinogenic pollutant, also known as TCE. They also conclude that a person drinking water at or below the updated guidance value, whether exposed briefly, occasionally, or daily for a lifetime would have little or no risk of health effects. Moreover, the trend for TCE-use has been experiencing a consistent decline in usage  and the exposure appears to be declining in the general population. Consumers should research the consumer confidence report for their specific water agency to obtain accurate information on their water quality and not rely solely on the information provided on the analysis provided by the EWC.

What is Trichloroethylene?

According to the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Trichloroethylene is a colorless volatile liquid that is produced in large volumes for commercial use. It is used to make other chemicals and as a solvent that is found in processes from dry cleaning, auto maintenance, aerosol cleaning products, and a  variety of other commercial industries. The Institute goes on to explain that TCE can be released into the water, air, and soil in the area where it is handled and stored.  TCE can become problematic if people experience chronic exposure or consumption since it has been recently categorized as a carcinogenic. According to the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for determining what level of contaminants, such as Trichloroethylene, in drinking water is safe for human consumption based on extensive testing, monitoring and research. The EPA creates enforceable drinking water standards for maximum contaminant levels (MCL). The MCL is the maximum allowable contaminant concentration, which a public water system can deliver to a customer. The current maximum contaminant level (MCL) for Trichloroethylene is 5µg/L (5 ppb).

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What are public health goals?

The California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, sets public health goals. These goals are based on concentrations that pose no significant health risks if consumed for an entire lifetime. These public health goals are utilized by public water agencies to provide customers with information about drinking water contaminants in their annual consumer confidence report. Public health goals are not regulatory standards, nor are they intended to be. They are a guideline for the State Water Resources Control Board when determining the appropriate MCL for a contaminant. To find out more information from your specific water agency on levels of TCE, visit their website and evaluate the consumer confidence report, also known as water quality report.

Where to find additional information on Trichloroethylene:

Drinking water, including bottled water, may reasonably be expected to contain at least small amounts of some contaminants. The presence of contaminants does not necessarily indicate the water poses a health risk. More information about contaminants and potential health effects can be obtained by calling the U.S. EPA’s Safe Drinking Water Hotline at 1-800-426-4791 or visit the EPA’s web site at www.epa.gov. Trace chemicals are measured in parts per million (ppm), which is the same as milligrams per liter (mg/L). Some constituents are measured in parts per billion (ppb). Some people may be more vulnerable to contaminants in drinking water than the general population. Those who may be particularly at risk include cancer patients, organ transplant recipients, people with HIV-AIDS or other immune system disorders, as well as some elderly individuals and infants. These people should seek advice about drinking water from their health care providers.

Innovative technology has helped improve many aspects in our quality of life and medical advancements are no exception. Medicine plays an integral role in people’s daily life; whether taken for a one-time ailment or as a daily medication, it has truly evolved and can help maintain healthy communities. But what happens when medications need to be disposed of?

It is important that we safeguard our natural resources from unwanted materials and this includes medicine. The Federal Drug Administration advises, “When your medicines are no longer needed, they should be disposed of promptly. Consumers and caregivers should remove expired, unwanted, or unused medicines from their home as quickly as possible to help reduce the chance that others accidentally take or intentionally misuse the unneeded medicine, and to help reduce drugs from entering the environment.” Essentially, proper disposal of medication has various benefits, including keeping potentially strong medicine out of the hands of children and those who may abuse it, and to minimize any environmental impacts, including impacts on our watersheds.

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Local organizations, such as Eastern Municipal Water District (EMWD), are helping customers and Riverside County residents properly dispose of unwanted medicines. “EMWD’s SewerSmart Healthy Sewers campaign educates on proper medication disposal in order to reduce the impacts of unwanted medications in local wastewater. Toilets are not trashcans,” shares Roxanne Rountree, Senior Public Affairs Officer at EMWD. “We provide free medication disposal bags. Simply place the medications in the bags, add water and throw away in a trashcan. Historically, the District has promoted disposing medications by mixing it with undesirable substances, such as kitty litter or coffee grounds, and discarding it in the household trash. This option provides convenient onsite disposal that ultimately ends up in a lined landfill. However, some consumers prefer off-site disposal, citing environmental concerns and the possibility of disposed medications ending up in the wrong hands,”

EMWD, like many of SAWPA’s partners regard what they call highly reliable water, recycled water and wastewater service as their top priority and do so by protecting the health and safety of the community and the environment, as well as meet all regulatory requirements.

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How much of a concern is it when medicine enters the environment and what kind of impact does it have on our watershed?
This is a multifaceted answer that has been the central topic in many discussions and studies throughout the years. The World Health Organization released a technical report that states, “Pharmaceuticals are normally governed by stringent regulatory processes and require rigorous preclinical and clinical studies to assess their efficacy and safety before commercialization. Therefore, pharmaceuticals are generally better characterized than other environmental contaminants.” However, the Santa Ana River Watershed still relies heavily on its local communities and partners to engage in safe disposal of unwanted medications, trash, and other forms of debris to maintain the vitality of the habitat and the integrity of the resource.

Some of the pharmaceutical contaminants in our environment do not come directly from the actual medication being disposed of in our waterways or down our toilets and sinks. In fact, the World Health Organization established “that raw sewage and wastewater effluents are a…source of pharmaceuticals found in surface waters,” and, the Federal Drug Administration reinforces the notion that the “majority of medicines found in water are a result of the body’s natural routes of drug elimination (in urine or feces).” The pharmaceutical contaminants make their way into our water supply via our natural sewer and water cycle. Nevertheless, almost every individual person can have a direct and positive impact on the watershed by following proper pharmaceutical disposal of medication they no longer need. The individual and community level preventative actions that people take help sustain a healthy and reliable source of water. They also support the habitation and give people ease of mind when participating in recreational activities along watershed.

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How do we know that our tap water quality still maintains its integrity? The World Health Organization goes on to explain, “Even though wastewater and drinking-water treatment processes are not designed specifically to remove pharmaceuticals, they may do so to varying degrees. Pharmaceuticals are not “unusual” chemicals; their removal efficiencies during wastewater and drinking-water treatment are dependent on their physical and chemical properties. In cases where regulations require controls to mitigate risks from exposure to pesticides, treatment barriers may already be optimized to remove pharmaceuticals. Conventional wastewater treatment facilities generally have activated sludge processes or other forms of biological treatment such as biofiltration. These processes have demonstrated varying removal rates for pharmaceuticals, ranging from less than 20% to greater than 90%.”

The FDA released a statement saying that “To date, scientists have found no evidence of harmful effects to human health from medicines in the environment. In addition, to better understand the human health and ecological risks from medicines in our water, the FDA works with other agencies, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).” Governing agencies are constantly searching for improvements in treatment processes to uphold water quality standards and protect our watersheds. To reduce overall medicine levels in our waters, FDA recommends that if readily available, consumers first consider disposing of these drugs as quickly as possible through programs. Available options include:

  • Using disposal events at your local pharmacy to return unused medication
  • Disposing of medicines in household trash in the following steps
    • Mix medicines (do not crush tablets or capsules) with an unpalatable substance such as dirt, cat litter, or used coffee grounds;
    • Place the mixture in a container such as a sealed plastic bag;
    • Throw the container in your household trash; and
  • By being cognizant of what we are disposing of in our waterways

EMWD has partnered with other public agencies to provide a myriad of options, including local events, to dispose of pharmaceutical medication including:

We shouldn’t contaminate our waters by pouring fat, grease, or oil down our pipes. Adopting the same mentality when it comes to pharmaceuticals can only help maintain the liveliness of our water supply and watershed, and promote overall public health.

 

Have you ever wondered what that giant tank on the hill was? You are looking at a water tank reservoir storing water for your community. Water reservoirs are a means to store both drinking (potable) and non-drinking water (non-potable). Reservoirs can be in the form of a lake or tank. Beneath the ground you can also find natural underground reservoirs where water is stored until it can be pumped, treated (cleaned) and delivered to homes.

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Eastern Municipal Water District’s Paradise Meadows Reservoir sits high above the hills of the Audie Murphy Ranch development.

Potable water tank reservoirs  store water that has already been treated and is waiting to be delivered to homes and businesses. In California, due to the mountainous terrain, reservoirs are usually placed in higher elevations. The reason for placing the tanks higher than the homes and businesses is because pressure is needed to push water through the pipes. The water that leaves the tanks travels by gravity flow. The water pushes through the distribution system (pipes) and the pressure depends on the elevation and distance of the reservoir that provides water to a home. A water pressure regulator is a device that can be installed to regulate pressure to ensure the correct amount of pressure is present.

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The water inside the Orangecrest Reservoir, in Riverside, is managed by Western Municipal Water District.

Reservoir tanks ensure that the correct amount of water is treated and ready to be distributed to the areas they provide water to. When people turn on the tap to take a drink of water, enjoy a shower or wash their hands, water travels directly from a nearby reservoir,  through pipes and into homes. The process happens so efficiently that most people never think twice about where their water comes from or how it gets to them. Besides residential, commercial and industrial water demands, reservoirs also store surplus water held in reserve in case of high fire flow water demand.  This ensures adequate water is supplied to fire hydrants when firefighting is needed.

“There are several benefits of a tank reservoir versus an open reservoir,” shares Liza Muñoz, Inland Empire Utilities Agency Senior Engineer.  “Tanks allow you to store a large amount of water in a smaller footprint than in an open reservoir. They also avoid water evaporation, which can reduce supply. Tanks are designed to supply water at the appropriate system pressures needed to deliver the water.”

930 West Reservoir in Chino Hills

930 West Reservoir in Chino Hills stores recycled water for agriculture, irrigation, industrial cooling processes, and groundwater replenishment.

Inland Empire Utilities Agency (IEUA) has five above ground tank reservoirs to store treated recycled water for non-potable (not for drinking) water. The recycled water is stored in the reservoirs and then distributed to IEUA’s member agencies for non-potable use in agriculture, irrigation, industrial cooling processes, and groundwater replenishment. The water stored in these tanks comes from IEUA’s regional water recycling plants and are governed by California Title 22. Stringent water quality testing is conducted so that recycled water quality meets/exceeds regulatory standards in order to be reused for non-drinking water purposes.

Both drinking water and treated recycled water can benefit from being stored in tank reservoirs. Next time to you look up at a hill and see a tank reservoir, be sure to remember that inside that large tank there are possibly millions of gallons of water inside waiting to travel through your city.

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An inside view of the San Bernardino Perris Hill Reservoir after being drained.

 

Water is a finite resource. We cannot make more of it. The same water on earth today is the same water that was here during the times that dinosaurs roamed.

Southern California’s dry climate with little rainfall requires the need for a sustainable and secure supply for water. With record breaking dry periods, such as the most-recent drought that took place over the course of five years from 2012 to 2017, water agencies throughout California are looking for solutions for maintaining a sustainable drinking water supply. It is more important than ever to become less dependent on  imported water and reduce costly sources of water to support the region’s demand. Dry years forced water agencies to look for innovative and progressive avenues that create local viable supplies of water.

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Advancements in technology, water treatment facilities and innovative thinking have created wastewater recycling and groundwater recharge. This approach to water supply management gives Southern California agencies a feasible option to meet the needs of its commercial and residential customers while preserving groundwater basin levels.

What exactly does wastewater recycling mean? It is a highly sophisticated process that the Environmental Protection Agency describes as “reusing treated (cleaned) wastewater for beneficial purposes such, as agricultural and landscape irrigation, industrial processes, toilet flushing, and replenishing a groundwater basin (referred to as groundwater recharge).” California’s Department of Water Resources describes groundwater recharge as “the augmentation of groundwater, by natural or artificial means, with surface water or recycled water.”

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This wastewater treatment and reuse process is currently being used for both non-potable (not consumable) and potable (consumable) via recharge across the region. Orange County Water District (OCWD) has led the way in developing and implementing a water purification system for indirect potable reuse. Its Groundwater Replenishment System (GWRS) is considered the world’s largest of its kind and serves as a global model for water reuse.

“Wastewater is a resource. That is why OCWD has made a significant investment in implementing and expanding the Groundwater Replenishment System . In fact, by 2023 the GWRS will produce 130 million gallons of water a day. The GWRS creates local water reliability and helps OCWD diversify its water portfolio. These types of projects have tremendous potential throughout California, and beyond. As water managers, we must look at all available options in our region to create long-term water reliability and water reuse should be considered,” shared OCWD General Manager Mike Markus.

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The GWRS takes highly treated wastewater that would have previously been discharged into the Pacific Ocean and purifies it using a three-step advanced treatment process consisting of micro-filtration, reverse osmosis and ultraviolet light with hydrogen peroxide.  In order to simultaneously maintain the groundwater basins integrity that was no longer being sustained by natural recharge, and to satisfy the demands of their ever-growing population, Orange County Water District will  replenish the supply with purchased imported sources as needed. Although the GWRS creates more local water reliability, Orange County Water District is still reliant on other water sources. The GWRS does reduce dependence on other water sources by 30 percent.

GWRS enabled the water district to reduce the need to purchase imported supplies and instead allowed them to recharge their basin with their wastewater that had been extensively treated. Their process is often described as a state-of-the-art production that creates a high quality, local indirect potable supply which is beneficial to all its consumers. Different types of this supply model, albeit smaller in production, are imitated throughout the region.

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Although treatment plants and techniques have become increasingly modified, using recycled wastewater to meet demands is not entirely new. In fact,  according to the Department of Water Resources, it is a technique that has been used for over a century.  During the late 1800s farmers began using wastewater to grow crops and others started using it for landscape irrigation. Investing in infrastructure for these operating systems usually requires a larger upfront cost but provides multifaceted benefits that often offset and surpass the cost. The Department of Water Resources list the following benefits for recycled water:Restores wetlands and marshes;

• Forestalls a water shortage by conserving fresh water;

• Provides additional reliable local sources of water, nutrients and organic matter for soil conditioning;

• Provides drought protection;

• Improves the economic efficiency of investments in pollution control and irrigation projects, particularly near urban areas;

• Improves social benefits by creating more jobs and improving human and environmental health protection.

Water districts understand the public health concerns regarding the use of recycled water, which is recharged in the groundwater basin and later used for potable water. They battle the misperceptions by ensuring quality tests meet and exceed mandatory state and federal regulations for drinking water. With increasing demands and an unpredictable future in California’s climate, building infrastructure for recycling wastewater for groundwater recharge is an option that is becoming increasingly popular to increase local control of water of resources.

BPA has made headlines repeatedly over the years and prompted a public outcry for more information over the topic. Many people have called for its ban and expressed concerns over the presence of BPA in everyday household items. The overwhelming presence of BPA in food and drink containers may be negatively impacting a wide range of bodily functions independent of age, race, or gender. The long term consequences of involuntary and long-term ingestion of the chemical raises the question of how to avoid it.

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What is exactly is BPA? The Mayo Clinic defines BPA, short for bisphenol A., as an industrial chemical that has been used to make certain plastics and resins since the 1960’s. The Clinic further explains that “BPA is found in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Polycarbonate plastics are often used in containers that store food and beverages, such as water bottles.” Essentially, BPA is a chemical that has been used in plastic productions for nearly 70 years and is universal among plastic-based container goods. BPA becomes problematic when used in everyday items such as water bottles and Tupperware due to the susceptibility of the chemical leaching into the contained product, i.e. food or beverages. This in turn leads to the chemical unknowingly being ingested and causing short and long term ailments. The Mayo Clinic reinforces that notion and states, “Some research has shown that BPA can seep into food or beverages from containers that are made with BPA. Exposure to BPA is a concern because of possible health effects of BPA on the brain, behavior and prostate gland of fetuses, infants and children. Additional research suggests a possible link between BPA and increased blood pressure.”

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Your So Cal Tap Water previously had the opportunity to interview Brenda Meyer, an engineer and water scientist from Western Municipal Water District, about the regulations that tap water is mandated to follow. We learned that besides BPA contamination concerns, bottled water also faces looser regulations in the filtering process compared to tap water. This is not to say that bottled water is unsafe to consume, but does reinforce the notion that tap water faces strict regulations by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and is monitored to maintain its quality. Bottled water is regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and is subject to weekly test for bacteriological contamination in California; while regular bottled water testing is suggested, it is not always enforced and often goes loosely regulated. Municipal water districts are subject to more rigorous quality tests on a frequent basis and take pride upholding the integrity of the resource.

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Time Magazine online shares a recent study, conducted by Orb Media, on the contamination of 9 of the 11 bottled water tested for Microplastic contamination testing positive. The findings were nearly universal discovering Microplastics in 90% of the samples tested. Compared to bottled water from around the globe, those tested from U.S. sources ranked higher for contamination. Furthermore, the environmental impacts of the bottled water are also a concern if not addressed.

We know that tap water is BPA free, regulated, and wallet-friendly to consume, but still the United States is experiencing an increase in sales of bottled water. According to data released by Beverage Marketing Inc., “Theamount of bottled water sold rose 7.9 percent in 2015. That’s on top of a 7 percent increase in 2014. Looking over a long term time span, from 2000 to 2015, bottled water consumption more than doubled, from 16.7 gallons a person to 36.4 gallons.”

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Americans are consistently purchasing and consuming more bottled water than ever before and potentially exposing themselves to hazardous chemicals in the process. Besides the convenience of purchasing bottled water, packaging is valued for its aesthetic components and media ‘worthiness.’ National Geographic speaks to the anti-bottled-water campaigns “which have been concentrated on the nation’s college campuses and focus on the environmentalimpact of bottled water as a packaged product, compared to simply refilling a reusable water bottle,” but concludes that the movement needs more engagement from the public.

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Staying BPA free is possible and there are many simple steps you can take to avoid it. Using a reusable bottle and filling it with tap water helps avoid environmental and health consequences that plastics containing BPA can produce. Choosing the right refillable bottle identified with ‘BPA free’ stickers or signage are also instrumental to avoiding the chemical in your household items. Whatever the case, be reassured that filling it with tap water is safe and monitored as well as economically friendly for any home!

To read our  interview with Brenda click here.

There is no question about it, according to the CDC, this year has been one of the worst recent years for the flu on record. If you have ever had the flu, you know that it can affect your entire system and halt your plans for several days, if not longer. One moment you are feeling well and the next the flu symptoms wreak havoc on your health. Fevers, aches and body chills, among many other unpleasant symptoms, stop your ability to function in your day-to-day routine. The symptoms of the flu hit children and elderly people the hardest. There are many precautions you can take to deter the flu, such as getting a flu shot at your local pharmacy, staying away from people who have the flu and washing your hands often. There are also holistic home remedies that claim to help avoid the illness as well. However, there is no way to guarantee that you won’t contract the flu. Germs spread quickly and varying strains of the flu can be stronger than others.

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In addition to taking necessary precautions, maintaining a healthy lifestyle is a key part of preventing the flu. A large part of healthy living is nourishing your body and drinking adequate amounts of water to enhance your immune system. Since more than half our bodies are composed of water, drinking the recommended amount may help you, and loved ones, end the flu season unscathed.

Most people know you are supposed to drink plenty of fluids when they are sick with the flu, but did you know that drinking water, including tap water, and staying hydrated year-long can actually help prevent it altogether? Water is essential for our bodies to operate and giving it the right amount strengthens its functions. Dr. David Lewis explains that “the first line of defense is the mucous membrane in the nose,” and, “[it] acts like a sticky flypaper to trap things like dust, dirt and bacteria and prevent them getting to the lungs. If you are dehydrated, the mucous membrane will dry out. When this happens, it is half as effective.” To keep your first line of defense in optimal, flu-fighting shape, it is imperative to drink enough water to fuel it so that it can block undesirable bacteria and viruses through this canal.

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Everyday Health affirms that drinking the recommended amount of water is beneficial to your health and one recent study “found staying hydrated may boost a particular immune response to enable your body to better fight the viruses.” This allows your body to avoid contracting the flu and fight off any unwanted symptoms but needs to be fortified with proper hydration and health. Boosting your immune system allows your body to ward off the flu before it becomes potentially  problematic, as it often does with people that have weak immune systems.

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Because water is made of oxygen, drinking more water increases the oxygen in our bodies. Drinking more water improves our body’s cellular respiration and the removal of toxins in our bodies. Essentially, water helps humans stay healthy, which can boost immunity and help avoid the flu. If you do happen to contract the flu, drinking plenty of water can help fight it and rid your body of the virus. Water is truly an amazing resource and does much more besides boosting our immune systems and helping prevent the flu. Whether it’s  flu season or not, drink plenty  of readily available tap water from your home faucet and keep hydrated. To learn about more benefits and tips to stay hydrated, read our post ‘New Year, New You: Benefits of Drinking Water

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